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A Bass's Sense of Hearing---bass的听觉感官

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发表于 2017-3-9 00:17:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 包子 于 2017-3-9 00:26 编辑

以下文章转载于"bassintips"
译文&补充说明:包子
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In water, sound is transmitted as waves of changing water pressure. Thus, a perfectly silent step on the bottom of a carpeted boat can make a sound (a pressure wave) that is "heard" by a bass.

在水中,声音会转化为变化的水压波纹来传播。因此,就算是安静的踩在底部铺了地毯的船上,也会产生bass能够“听到”的水的压力波动.

Your boat is constantly acting as an underwater, sound transmitting antenna, and it is amazing how well a bass can hear what is going on in a boat.

你的船不断地作为一个水下,声音发射天线,这就是bass可以“听到”在船上发生了什么的原因。

Much to our benefit, not all the things bass hear spook them.

对我们有利的是,并不是bass所有能听到的声音都会惊吓到它们。

Bass hear through four separate organs, two inner ears and two lateral lines. A bass's sense of hearing is much better than man's, and water transmits sounds five times better than does air. Never doubt that a bass can hear the noises you make in your boat. But we need to differentiate between two entirely different types of fisherman sound.

bass通过四个单独的机构,两个内耳朵和两个侧线听到声音。bass的声音感官远好于人类,并且,声音在水中的传播效果比在空气中强五倍。永远不要怀疑bass能够听到你在船上的动静。但是我们需要区分两种不同类型的声音。

Two fishermen talking are making sounds in the air that might bother other fisherman, but their talk will not bother the bass. Why? because air sounds are poorly coupled into water through the air/water interface.
两名钓手说话的声音也许会打扰到其他的钓手,但是并不会打扰到bass。为什么呢?因为空气中传播的声音在(空气到水)的阶段会大大的减弱。

Sounds that occur entirely in the air seldom spook fish
On the other hand, sounds made by striking the boat are transmitted extremely efficiently into the water and often spook fish, even quiet events that go unnoticed by boat occupants.

在空气中传播的声音很少惊吓到鱼,另一方面,船上碰撞的声音会极其有效的传到水中,并且经常会惊吓到鱼,甚至是平时我们不在意的一些自认为安静的声音。

Digging around in a tackle box, opening and closing rod box lids, dropping pliers on the floor, and the like, are all sounds that alert bass to your presence.

翻动工具盒,打开和关闭拉杆箱盖,在地板上放下钳子等,都是在向bass提醒你的存在。
These are also sounds that may or may not spook the fish depending on how deep they are, how wary they are and what types of sounds they have become accustomed to.

The shallower the fish, the more apt they are to spook from a sound. A lot of fishermen catch fewer shallow bass than they should because of noises made in the boat.
有些声音也可能会或者不会惊扰到它们,这取决于它们所在的水层,谨慎的程度,它们所习惯的声音。
越浅水层中的鱼,越容易被声音惊扰,因为他们在船上的声音,许多钓手在浅水的钓获会比预计的少。

A bass can hear both gas powered motors & trolling motors. When they are feeding shallow they tend to spook off a big motor more so than a trolling motor.

Bass能够听到油推和电推发动机的声音,当它们在浅水进食时,油推发动机比电推发动机更容易吓跑它们。

Therefore, when approaching a shallow fishing area, you should shut down the big motor about 100 feet from your fishing spot. Then get organized; do all the digging that needs to be done in tackle or rod boxes. And finally when you are ready to be quiet and start fishing use a low setting on the trolling motor to close the final 100 feet.
因此,当靠近一个浅水标点时,你应该在大约还有100英尺的距离时,关掉油推发动机,然后整理好工具装备,完成所有需要翻找饵盒竿箱的准备。最后,将电推调到低速的设置,并安静的靠近标点。

Trolling motors do not spook bass, but they can certainly hear them. And pressured bass have learned that trolling motor sounds mean there are fishermen nearby. Experience has taught us that a trolling motor does not spook a bass, but more recently we have learned that trolling motors tend to alert the bass to our presence. Therefore we try to keep our trolling motors on lows and we pulse them as little as possible.
电推发动机虽然不会惊扰到bass ,但是bass确实可以听见它们。压力场中的bass听到电推发动机的声音就会知道有钓手就在附近。因此,我们需要尽可能的让电推保持在低速状态以减小对bass的刺激。
        
The bass's inner ear is a spherical cavity with a ball suspended in liquid, in the middle of the sphere. The ball is held in the middle by sound sensing nerves and tissue. The two inner ears are buried under the skull on each side of the fish's head. Sounds are efficiently transmitted through the water, through the skin then through muscle anal bone to these inner ears. In addition, bass inner ears are augmented by lateral lines that are used to hear lower frequency sounds. There is a lateral line on each side of the bass, and each consists of a series of nerve cells that run the length of the fish.

bass的内耳是一个空腔球体,里面有个球悬浮在液体中,在空腔球体的中间。 球通过声音感知神经和组织保持在中间。 两个内耳埋在鱼头两侧的颅骨下。 声音通过水,通过皮肤,然后通过肌肉肛门骨有效地传播到这些内耳。 此外,bass内耳被用于听低频声音的侧线增强。 在bass的每一侧都有一条横线,每条线都由一系列沿着鱼长度延伸的神经细胞组成。

The right side of the bass senses a sound wave at a different time than the left side. Additionally, small differences exist in signal strength and arrival time, as a sound wave strikes various lateral line sensors.

bass左右侧感受声波的时间有所不同,当声波撞击各种横向线传感器时,信号强度和到达时间存在小的差异。

Thus lateral line nerve endings give bass an extremely accurate sense of direction. At short ranges a bass knows exactly were a sound is coming from and whether it sounds like something edible.

因此,侧线神经末梢给予bass极其精确的方向感。 在短距离,bass确切的知道声音是从哪里来的,以及是否它听起来可以被捕食。

Few fishermen finally appreciate the importance of a lure's sound to whether a bass strikes it or not. We think that bass make bite/no bite decisions primarily based on sight, but they will still reject a lure if it does not sound right.

极少数的钓手认识到路亚饵的声音对于bass是否咬口的重要性。我们认为bass主要基于视觉来做出是否咬口的决定。但是,如果饵的声音不对劲,它们仍然会拒绝就饵。

Bass are attracted by some sounds and repelled by others. Not many years ago it was discovered that rattles in baits call attention to the bait and increases the odds that a bass will bite.

Bass会被某些声音所吸引,也会对某些声音感到排斥。前些年,人们发现,饵上的“咔嗒”声能吸引bass的注意并增加咬口的概率。

Because of this phenomena more and more baits have built in rattles, and a lot of fishermen are putting rattles in their plastic worms, in their spinnerbaits, and they are also attaching rattles to jigs.
由于这种现象的发现,越来越多的饵能够发出“咔嗒”声,许多钓手将响管加在他们的软饵,复合亮片,还有jig上。

More recently, a few professional fishermen have decided that rattles are being overused. These fishermen suspect that some bass have learned that rattling sounds means artificial lures that should not be eaten.

We aren't convinced that this phenomenon has occurred, but we believe it will in due time.

最近,一些职业钓手发现响管被过度的使用。这些钓手怀疑有些bass已经知道能发出这种声音的饵是不能碰的。
我们不相信这种现象已经发生,但我们认为这种现象是有期限的。



---------------------------------------------------
图例1:加了响管的spinnerbait



图例2:加了响管的jig

图例3:响管

图例4:加了响管的tube钩





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发表于 2017-3-10 15:07:06 | 显示全部楼层
超级给力的译文,包子辛苦了,对于上次我提到的侧线问题,这个解释的很清楚。
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发表于 2017-9-29 12:10:50 | 显示全部楼层
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昨天已经提到,套利的英文Arbitrage。它的核心思想就是说当市场处于非平衡状态时,即同一特性的商品出现价格不同时(定价错误),套利者会通过低买高卖来赚取中间差价。它的特点就是利润空间小,需要大量本金投入。


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