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The Colors Bass See---bass 看到的颜色

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发表于 2017-3-11 19:30:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 包子 于 2017-3-11 19:36 编辑

以下文章转载于"bassintips"
译文&补充说明:包子


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The Colors Bass See


bass 看到的颜色


The color of a lure is distinctly different underwater than it is in a boat. Why is this? Because of how light reacts with water. The sun's rays heat the water of a lake. That is, the lake converts light energy into heat energy. Stated differently, the lake absorbs the light and turns it into heat. But water absorbs some colors much more readily than other colors. The sun shining on a lure in a boat contains all color wavelengths. Not so once these color wavelengths enter water because the water is a biased absorber of light. Reds are turned into heat first and blues are absorbed last.


拟饵的颜色在水下与在船上时有明显的不同。为什么会是这样?这与光和水的反应有关。太阳的光芒加热了湖水,换句话说,湖水吸收了光能,并将其转化为热能。水对于某些颜色的吸收存在快慢的区别。照在船上的拟饵的阳光中包含了所有颜色的波长,一旦拟饵进入了水中,情况就会发生改变,因为水的吸收偏向,红色最先转化为热能,蓝色最后被吸收。


This is why natural underwater scenes are so blue. In perfectly clear water all shades of red are absorbed and converted to heat before the light reaches 17 feet of depth. Next to go are the various shades of orange. Orange gradually turns to a dull yellow as an orange lure runs deeper and deeper. After the oranges are gone the yellows are filtered out next. And greens follow the yellows. And finally nothing is left but blue light. After the blues are absorbed there is no light -- only darkness. Just before the blues are absorbed everything appears in various shades of dark blue or black. A white lure will look white in the first few feet of water, but it gradually turns green then blue as it goes deeper and deeper. A bright red lure will appear bright red in the first few inches of water, red for a few feet, then at deeper depths it gradually turns black. Why? Because no red light reaches the lure to shine on it. These words apply to color without regard to the eyes perceiving the color.


这就是为什么自然环境中,水下看起来如此蓝的原因。在完全清澈的水中,红色系的颜色在光线到达17英尺深度之前被水吸收,并转化为热量。接下来是各种色调的橙色系颜色,比如橙色的拟饵随着深度越沉越深,橙色会逐渐变成暗黄色。黄色消失后,紧跟着的是绿色。最后,除了蓝色的光线外,没有别的颜色。在蓝色被吸收之后,就没有任何的光线,只有黑暗。在蓝色被吸收之前,一切都以深蓝色或黑色的各种色调出现。白色的拟饵在水中前几英尺的深度中看起来是白色的,但随着它越来越深,它会逐渐变绿,然后变蓝。亮红色的拟饵在前几英寸的水深看起来是亮红色,然后有几英尺的深度变成红色,在更深的深度,它逐渐变黑。为什么?因为没有红色的光线能够照到它。以上这些是颜色在水中的情况,并不考虑到眼睛对颜色的感知。


Eyes have cones and rods


眼睛有视锥细胞和视杆细胞


Bass evolved along a totally different path than humans. From an evolution standpoint there is no similarity between how a human thinks and a bass thinks. There is little similarity in how a bass hears and a human hears, and we have to be careful when we are comparing how a bass sees and how humans see. Bass eyes evolved to see in water. Human eyes evolved to see in air. But there are striking similarities in how a bass eye works and how a human eye works.
Cones see colors; rods see things in shades of gray. As best we can determine, a bass sees colors much as a human sees colors. We think this is true because bass eyes have cones very similar to the cones in human eyes. But here is one huge difference: A human eye has a pupil, a bass's eye has no pupil. In bright light the human pupil closes down. In dim light the human pupil opens up.


bass沿着一条完全不同于人类的道路进化。从进化的角度来看,人类的思维与bass的思维之间没有相似之处。bass的听觉和人类的听觉有一点点相似。在比较bass与人类的视觉时我们需要在意的是,bass的眼睛进化于水中的视觉,人类的眼睛进化于空气中的视觉。但是人眼与bass的眼睛在如何起作用方面有着惊人的相似之处。
视锥细胞感知颜色,视杆细胞感知灰度。我们能确定的是,bass能看到的颜色同人类一样多,我们认为这是真的,因为bass与人类眼睛的视锥细胞非常类似,但是也有一个巨大的区别,人类的眼睛有瞳孔,bass的眼睛没有。在明亮的光线下,人类的瞳孔关闭,在昏暗的光线下,人类的瞳孔会打开。
But, since a bass eye has no pupil, it adjusts to brightness by repositioning rods. In bright light a bass sees with cones with almost all of its rods being hidden behind cones. As the light dims more and more rods are positioned for sight. In really dim light cones are less effective and the bass sees primarily with rods. Thus, in really dim light a bass sees in black and white. And a bass's eye has better (and many more) rods than does a human eye. Thus it sees in dim light much, much better than does a human.


由于bass没有瞳孔,它通过重新定位视杆细胞来调节亮度。在明亮的光线下,bass主要依靠视锥细胞,这时,几乎所有的视杆细胞都隐藏在视锥细胞之后。随着光线变暗,越来越多的视杆细胞被用于增强视觉。在真正昏暗的光线下,视锥细胞的效果较差,bass的视觉主要依赖于视杆细胞。因此,在真正昏暗的光线中,bass只能看到黑和白色(这种条件下看到的应该是黑白之间灰度的区别)。bass眼睛的视杆细胞大大强于人眼视杆细胞,它在昏暗光线中的视觉远远强于人类。


Remember: cones see colors; rods see shades of gray. This means that in shallow and clear water a bass sees in vivid colors, but in deeper dingy water it sees dull colors but mostly it sees shades of gray. A bass can see six or seven times better than a human, but most of this increased visual acuity is in dim light. In other words, most of this increased vision is in black-and-white.


记住:视锥细胞感知颜色,视杆细胞感知灰度。 这意味着,在浅水和清澈的水中,bass能看到清晰的颜色,但在更深,更脏的水中,bass看见的是黯淡的颜色,但大多看到的是不同灰度的阴影。bass的视觉比人类强6,7倍,这种被增强的视觉大部分作用于昏暗的光线中。换句话来说,这种被增强的视觉看到的是黑白之间的颜色。

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图例:视锥细胞与视杆细胞






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